The V Programming Language

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## Key Features of V - Simplicity: the language can be learned in a weekend - Fast compilation: ≈110k loc/s with a Clang backend, ≈1 million loc/s with native and tcc backends *(Intel i5-7500, SSD, no optimization)* ([demo video]( - Easy to develop: V compiles itself in less than a second - Performance: as fast as C (V's main backend compiles to human-readable C) - Safety: no null, no globals, no undefined behavior, immutability by default - C to V translation ([Translating DOOM demo video]( - Hot code reloading - [Innovative memory management]( ([demo video]( - [Cross-platform UI library]( - Built-in graphics library - Easy cross-compilation - REPL - [Built-in ORM]( - [Built-in web framework]( - C and JavaScript backends - Great for writing low-level software ([Vinix OS]( ## Stability guarantee and future changes Despite being at an early development stage, the V language is relatively stable and has backwards compatibility guarantee, meaning that the code you write today is guaranteed to work a month, a year, or five years from now. There still may be minor syntax changes before the 1.0 release, but they will be handled automatically via `vfmt`, as has been done in the past. The V core APIs (primarily the `os` module) will still have minor changes until they are stabilized in V 1.0. Of course the APIs will grow after that, but without breaking existing code. Unlike many other languages, V is not going to be always changing, with new features being introduced and old features modified. It is always going to be a small and simple language, very similar to the way it is right now. ## Installing V - from source *(preferred method)* ### Linux, macOS, Windows, *BSD, Solaris, WSL, Android, etc. Usually installing V is quite simple if you have an environment that already has a functional `git` installation. * *(* ***PLEASE NOTE:*** *If you run into any trouble or you have a different operating system or Linux distribution that doesn't install or work immediately, please see [Installation Issues]( and search for your OS and problem. If you can't find your problem, please add it to an existing discussion if one exists for your OS, or create a new one if a main discussion doesn't yet exist for your OS.)* To get started, simply try to execute the following in your terminal/shell: ```bash git clone cd v make # HINT: Using Windows?: run make.bat in the cmd.exe shell ``` That should be it and you should find your V executable at `[path to V repo]/v`. `[path to V repo]` can be anywhere. (As in the hint above, on Windows `make` means running `make.bat`, so make sure you use the `cmd.exe` terminal.) Now you can try `./v run examples/hello_world.v` (`v.exe` on Windows). * *Trouble? Please see the note above and link to [Installation Issues]( for help.* V is constantly being updated. To update V, simply run: ```bash v up ``` ### C compiler It's recommended to use Clang, GCC, or Visual Studio. If you are doing development, you most likely already have one of those installed. Otherwise, follow these instructions: - [Installing a C compiler on Linux and macOS]( - [Installing a C compiler on Windows]( However, if none is found when running `make` on Linux or Windows, TCC is downloaded as the default C backend. It's very lightweight (several MB) so this shouldn't take too long. ### Symlinking NB: it is *highly recommended*, that you put V on your PATH. That saves you the effort to type in the full path to your v executable every time. V provides a convenience `v symlink` command to do that more easily. On Unix systems, it creates a `/usr/local/bin/v` symlink to your executable. To do that, run: ```bash sudo ./v symlink ``` On Windows, start a new shell with administrative privileges, for example by Windows Key, then type `cmd.exe`, right-click on its menu entry, and choose `Run as administrator`. In the new administrative shell, cd to the path, where you have compiled v.exe, then type: ```bat .\v.exe symlink ``` That will make V available everywhere, by adding it to your PATH. Please restart your shell/editor after that, so that it can pick the new PATH variable. NB: there is no need to run `v symlink` more than once - v will continue to be available, even after `v up`, restarts, and so on. You only need to run it again, if you decide to move the V repo folder somewhere else. ### Docker
Expand Docker instructions ```bash git clone cd v docker build -t vlang . docker run --rm -it vlang:latest ``` ### Docker with Alpine/musl ```bash git clone cd v docker build -t vlang --file=Dockerfile.alpine . docker run --rm -it vlang:latest ```
## Testing and running the examples Make sure V can compile itself: ```bash v self ``` ```bash $ v V 0.3.x Use Ctrl-C or `exit` to exit >>> println('hello world') hello world >>> ``` ```bash cd examples v hello_world.v && ./hello_world # or simply v run hello_world.v # this builds the program and runs it right away v run word_counter/word_counter.v word_counter/cinderella.txt v run news_fetcher.v v run tetris/tetris.v ``` NB: In order to build Tetris or 2048 (or anything else using `sokol` or `gg` graphics modules) on some Linux systems, you need to install `libxi-dev` and `libxcursor-dev` . ## V net.http, net.websocket, `v install` If you plan to use the net.http module, or the net.websocket module, you also need to install OpenSSL on non-Windows systems: ```bash macOS: brew install openssl Debian/Ubuntu: sudo apt install libssl-dev Arch/Manjaro: openssl is installed by default Fedora: sudo dnf install openssl-devel ``` ## V sync V's `sync` module and channel implementation uses libatomic. It is most likely already installed on your system, but if not, you can install it, by doing the following: ```bash MacOS: already installed Debian/Ubuntu: sudo apt install libatomic1 Fedora/CentOS/RH: sudo dnf install libatomic-static ``` ## V UI ## Android graphical apps With V's `vab` tool, building V UI and graphical apps for Android can become as easy as: ``` ./vab /path/to/v/examples/2048 ``` []( ## Developing web applications Check out the [Building a simple web blog]( tutorial and Gitly, a light and fast alternative to GitHub/GitLab: ## Vinix, an OS/kernel written in V V is great for writing low-level software like drivers and kernels. Vinix is an OS/kernel that already runs bash, GCC, V, and nano. ## Acknowledgement V thanks Fabrice Bellard for his original work on the [TCC - Tiny C Compiler]( Note the TCC website is old; the current TCC repository can be found [here]( V utilizes pre-built TCC binaries located at []( ## Troubleshooting Please see the [Troubleshooting]( section on our [wiki page]( [WorkflowBadge]: [DiscordBadge]: [PatreonBadge]: [SponsorBadge]: [TwitterBadge]: [WorkflowUrl]: [DiscordUrl]: [PatreonUrl]: [SponsorUrl]: [TwitterUrl]: