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52 years ago
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checker checker: check for name conflicts between const and __global variables (fix checker: check for name conflicts between const and __global variables (fix #15668) (#15669)) (checker: check for name conflicts between const and __global variables (fix #15668) (#15669)) last Sep 5
depgraph checker: improve pub struct check (fix checker: improve pub struct check (fix #14446) (#14777)) (checker: improve pub struct check (fix #14446) (#14777)) last Jun 19
markused markused: fix generic fn mark as used (fix markused: fix generic fn mark as used (fix #15387) (#15406)) (markused: fix generic fn mark as used (fix #15387) (#15406)) last Aug 11
pkgconfig V 0.3.1 last Aug 31
util V 0.3.1 last Aug 31
vmod V 0.3.1 last Aug 31

Description

v is a namespace for all of the V compiler modules.

The V compiler modules can be used by V programs that want to process V source code in different ways, in fact, that is how various V tools are implemented: v fmt, v doc, v ast, vls, as well as the V compiler itself.

Compiler pipeline

A simple high level explanation how the compiler pipeline (parser -> checker -> generator) works.

Reading files

Getting builtin files

To load all builtin files, a preference Preferences.lookup_path for the path where to look for exists. See Builder.get_builtin_files as example. If the file is a .vsh file and the backend is C, vlib/os will also be loaded as builtin.

Getting project files

Either there is a specific file: my_file.v or a directory containing V files. In the last case it scans that directory for all files. See Builder.v_files_from_dir as the helper method. This list of files needs to be filtered so that only *.v files exist.

Skips the following file types:

Parsing files

To parse something a new template is created as the first step:

import v.ast

table := ast.new_table()

a new preference is created:

import v.pref

pref := &pref.Preferences{}

and a new scope is created:

import v.ast

scope := ast.Scope{
    parent: 0
}

after that, you can parse your files.

Parse text

If you want to parse only text which isn't saved on the disk you can use this function.

import v.parser

code := ''
// table, pref and scope needs to be passed as reference
parsed_file := parser.parse_text(code, table, .parse_comments, &pref, &scope)

Parse a single file

For parsing files on disk, a path needs to be provided. The paths are collected one step earlier.

import v.parser

path := ''
// table, pref and scope needs to be passed as reference
parsed_file := parser.parse_file(path, table, .parse_comments, &pref, &scope)

Parse a set of files

If you have a batch of paths available which should be parsed, there is also a function which does all the work.

import v.parser

paths := ['']
// table, pref and scope needs to be passed as reference
parsed_files := parser.parse_files(paths, table, &pref, &scope)

Parse imports

A file often contains imports. These imports might need to be parsed as well. The builder contains a method which does this: Builder.parse_imports.

If the module which is imported isn't parsed already, you have to collect it relatively from the main file. For this the ast.File contains a list of imports. Those imports needs to be found on disk. . is just replaced with separators in the relative location of the main file. Then all files from that directory are collected and parsed again like the previous steps explained.

Checking AST

A new checker is created:

import v.checker

mut checker := checker.new_checker(table, &pref)

After checking your files in checker.errors and checker.warnings you can see the results.

Check ast.File

checker.check(parsed_file)

Check a list of ast.File

checker.check_files(parsed_files)

Generate target from AST

Generating C code works just as this:

import v.gen.c

res := c.gen(parsed_files, table, &pref)