v
## V 0.1.27
*5 May 2020*

- vfmt has been re-written from scratch using the new AST parser. It's much faster, cleaner, and can format
files with compilation errors.
- `strconv`, `sprintf`, and `printf` in native V, without any libc calls.
- Interfaces are now a lot more stable and have all expected features.
- Lots of x64 backend improvements: function calls, if expressions, for loops, local variables.
- `map()` and `filter()` methods can now be chained.
- New `[]int{cap:cap, len:len}` syntax for initializing array length and capacity.
- New `is` keyword for checking the type of sum types and interfaces.
- `as` can now be used to cast interfaces and sum types.
- Profiling with `-profile`. Prints a nice table with detailed information about every single function call:
number of calls, average time per call, total time per function.
- `import(xxx)` syntax has been removed in favor of `import xxx` for simplicity and greppability.
- Lots of fixes and improvements in the type checker.
- `time.StopWatch`
- `dl` module for dynamic loading.
- Automatic `str()` method generation for every single type, including all arrays and fixed size arrays.
- Short struct initialization syntax for imitating named function args: `foo(bar:0, baz:1)`.
- New operator `!in`.
- Performance improvements in critical parts of the builtin data structures (array, map).
- High order functions improvements (functions can now be returned etc).
- Anonymous functions that can be defined inside other functions.
- Built-in JSON module is back.
- Closures.
- Lots and lots of new tests added, including output tests that test error messages.
- Multiple errors are now printed, the compiler no longer stops after the first error.
- The new JS backend using the AST parser (almost complete).
- Variadic functions.
- `net.websocket` module (early stage).
- `vlib` is now memory leak free, lots of `autofree` improvements.
- Simplified and cleaned up `cmd/v`, `v.builder`.
- V UI was updated to work with the new backend.


## V 0.1.25
*1 Apr 2020*

- The entire compiler has been re-written with an AST parser. The code is now a lot cleaner and more maintainable. ~15k lines of old compiler code were removed.

## V 0.1.24
*31 Dec 2019*

- A new parser/generator built on top of an AST that simplifies code greatly and allows to implement new
  backends much faster.
- Sum types (`type Expr = IfExpr | MatchExpr | IntegerLiteral`).
- B-tree map (sped up the V compiler by ~10%).
- `v fmt -w`.
- The entire code base has been formatted with vfmt.
- Generic structs.
- SDL module.
- Arrays of pointers.
- os: `is_link()`, `is_dir()`, `exists()`.
- Ranging through fixed size arrays.
- Lots of fixes in ORM and vweb.
- The first tutorial: [building a simple web application with vweb](https://github.com/vlang/v/blob/master/tutorials/building-a-simple-web-blog-with-vweb.md).
- Match expressions now must be exhaustive.
- freestanding: `malloc()`/`free()`.
- `++` is now required instead of `+= 1` for consistency.
- Interpolated strings now allow function calls: `println('val = $get_val()')`.
- `string.replace_each([])` for an efficient replacement of multiple values.
- More utf8 helper functions.
- `-prealloc` option for block allocations.
- `type` aliases.
- Running `v` with an unknown command will result in an error.
- `atof` implementation in pure V.
- Enums can now have negative values.
- New `filepath` module.
- `math.factorial`.
- `ftp` module.
- New syntax for casting: `val as Type`.
- Fewer libc functions used (soon V will have no dependency on libc).


## V 0.1.23
*30 Nov 2019*

- [Direct x64 machine code generation](https://github.com/vlang/v/issues/2849). Hello world being built in 3 milliseconds.
- Bare metal support via the `-freestanding` flag, allowing to build programs without linking to libc.
- Prebuilt V packages for Linux, macOS, and Windows.
- `string.index()` now returns `?int` instead of `int/-1`.
- Lots of fixes in Generics.
- vweb framework for developing web applications is back.
- Vorum, the forum/blogging software written in V/vweb, can now be compiled and has been added to CI.
- REPL, `v up` have been split up into separate applications to keep the core V compiler small.
- V now enforces short enum syntax (`.green` instead of `Color.green`) when it's enough.
- V UI for macOS.
- Interfaces have been rewritten. `[]interface` support.
- `os.cp()` for copying files and directores.
- Additional compile-time flags: `$if clang, msvc, mingw, x32, x64, big_endian, little_endian {`.
- All C functions now have to be declared, all missing C functions have been defined.
- Global variables (only with the `--enable-globals` flag) for low level applications like kernels and drivers.
- Nothing can be cast to bool (previously code like `if bool(1) {` worked).
- `<<` and `>>` now work with all integer types.
- V detects Cygwin and shows an error (V supports Windows natively).
- Improved type checking of some operators (`%, |, &` etc).
- Windows 7 support.
- `println(true)` now prints `true` instead of `1`.
- `os.exec()` now uses `CreateProcess` on Windows.
- fast.vlang.io website for monitoring the performance of V after every commit.
- On Windows Visual Studio is now used automatically if GCC is not installed.
- vfmt!
- Lots of cleaning up in the compiler code.
- Multi-level pointers in unsafe code (`****int`).
- MSVC backtrace.
- `$if os {` blocks are now skipped on a different OS.
- C string literals (`c'hello'`).
- AlpineLinux/musl fixes + added to CI.
- Inline assembly.
- Clipboard module (Windows, macOS, X).
- `foo()?` syntax for error propagation.
- Docs have been migrated from HTML to `doc/docs.md`.
- `eventbus` module.
- Haiku OS support.
- `malloc/free` on bare metal.
- `utf8` helper functions (`to_lower()`, `to_upper()`, etc).
- Optimization of `for c in str {`.
- `string/array.left/right/slice/substr` were removed (`[a..b]` slicing syntax should be used instead).



## V 0.1.22
*28 Oct 2019*

- Generic functions (`fn foo(bar T) T {`) with varargs support.
- `array[start..end]` and `string[start..end]` slicing syntax.
- Optimized `array.filter()` and `array.map()`.
- `sqlite` module.
- Cached modules for faster compilation.
- Dramatic compilation optimizations: [V now compiles itself in
0.10 - 0.30 seconds](https://github.com/vlang/v/wiki/The-V-language-now-compiles-itself-in-0.09-seconds).
- V scripts (simpler and cross-platform alternative to Bash).
- Infinite multi-dimensional arrays (`[][][]int`).
- `unsafe`.
- `[deprecated]` attribute.
- `[if]` function attributes for compile time function exclusion for performance.
- `switch` has been completely removed from the language and replaced by
`match` everywhere.
- `pub struct` and `pub const`, previously all structs and consts were public
by default.
- `musl` support (V can now run on, for example, Alpine Linux).
- Module header generation. V now supports closed source modules, which are still
used in some industries.
- Constants were added to typo suggestions.
- `color in [.green, .red, .blue]` now works without specifying `Color.green`.
- V compiler is now a module that can be used by other programs.
- Backtraces now have source lines on Linux.
- `runtime.nr_cpus()`.
- `fn init()` for module initialization.
- `a in [1, 2, 3]` optimization: no array gets allocated.
- Raw strings: `s := r'hello\nworld'`.
- `if a := func() { }` syntax for handling optionals.
- f32/f64 comparison now uses machine epsilon by default.


## V 0.1.21
*30 Sep 2019*

- `none` keyword for optionals.
- Solaris support.
- All table lookup functions now use `none`.
- varargs: `fn foo(bar int, params ...string) {`.
- Double quotes (`"`) can now also be used to denote strings.
- GitHub Actions CI in addition to Travis.
- `-compress` option. The V binary built with `-compress` is only ~90 KB!
- More memory management.
- Unused modules result in an error.
- "Unused variable/module" errors are now warnings in non-production builds.
- Duplicate methods with the same name can no longer be defined.
- Struct names must be capitalized, variable/function names must use snake_case.
- Error messages are now even nicer!
- Lots of fixes in automatic `.str()` method generation for structs and arrays.
- ~30% faster parser (files are no longer parsed separately for each pass).
- `_` is no longer a variable, but an actual syntax construct to skip unused values, like in Go.
- Multiple returns (`fn foo() (int, string) {`).
- `!` can now only be used with booleans.


## V 0.1.20
*17 Sep 2019*

- JavaScript backend!
- Hundreds of C warnings were fixed. `gcc v.c` now builds without
any warnings.
- The mutability check now applies to function args (mutable
receivers that are not modified result in a compilation error).
- V tests now show how long each test took.
- Official Android support (only console applications via Termux for now).
- Typo check. If a variable/function/module etc is misspelled,
V will suggest the correct name.
- Lots of Microsoft C fixes, and a separate Travis instance for
this backend.
- Bitwise operators `|`, `^`, `&` no longer work with booleans.


## V 0.1.19
*12 Sep 2019*

- Lots of refactoring, simplifications, and optimizations in the compiler.
- Experimental memory management at compilation (only for the V compiler itself for now).
- Lots of ORM fixes.
- Functions can now be inlined via the `[inline]` attribute.
- New `mysql` module.
- Better error format that is supported by all major editors (go to error).
- Error messages now point to the actual place where the error happened.
- Custom json field names: `struct User { last_name string [json:lastName] }`.
- Raw json fields via the `[raw]` attribute.
- All C code was removed from the `freetype` module.
- `gg` module can now render all Unicode characters.
- `[typedef]` attribute for imported C struct typedefs.
- Support of Objective C interfaces (primarily for using Cocoa).
- REPL: clear command and custom functions.
- REPL tests (which are also used for testing certain compiler errors).
- Syntax bug fixed: `foo[0] += 10` is now possible.
- http: support plain HTTP protocol and follow redirects.
- http: header data is now processed correctly.
- net: basic UDP support.
- `import const` was removed from the language.
- `array.contains()` was removed from the language (`in` should be used instead).
- `[0; len]` syntax was removed (replaced with a simpler `[0].repeat(len)`)
- Primitive aliases were removed to simplify the language.
- GitHub supports V now!
- Backtraces are now printed on panics.
- A new awesome `readline` module.
- V.c is now regenerated automatically after every commit.
- A bug with struct ordering was fixed, now structs can be declared in any order.
- V modules can now be built with `v build module`.
- `@FILE, @LINE, @FN, @COLUMN` for debugging.


## V 0.1.18
*16 Aug 2019*

- Built-in ORM (`uk_customers = db.select from Customer where country == 'uk' && nr_orders > 0`).
- Map initialization syntax: `m := { ‘foo’: ‘bar’, ‘baz’: ‘foo’ }`.
- `map.delete(key)`.
- `libcurl` dependency was removed from the `http` module.
- All function arguments are now immutable by default (previously they could be
  modifed inside the function).
- `http` functions now return optionals.
- `sync.WaitGroup`.
- `vweb` static files serving.
- `crypto.rand` module.
- `v up` to update V.
- SChannel support on Windows.
- `net.urllib` module.
- vpm package manager, `v install`.
- `()` are now required in complex bool expressions: `(a && b) || c` instead of `a && b || c`.
- All arrays now have a default `.str()` method.
- Bootstrapping V with MSVC.
- Experimental `≠` etc support.
- `encoding.csv` module.
- `$if debug {` for running code in debug mode only.
- Map struct fields are now initialized automatically, just like arrays.
- Maps now support array values.
- `json` functions can no longer be used if the `json` module is not imported.


## V 0.1.17
*29 Jul 2019*
- `vweb` module for developing web apps in V.
- vtalk, open source V forum software.
- Generics (very limited right now, but they will be gradually improved).
- Comptime codegen (`foo.$method()` where `method` is a string).
- @ for escaping keywords (e.g. `struct Foo { @type string }`).
- Windows Unicode fixes (V can now work with non-ASCII paths etc on Windows).
- Fix mutable args bugs + don't allow primitive arguments to be modified.
- Declaring a mutable variable and never modifying it results in a compilation error.
- Interactive debugging support.
- `sync` module for Windows.
- `#!` support on Unix systems (V scripts).
- Lots of Visual Studio fixes.
- `crypto.aes` and `crypto.rc4` modules.
- Internal modules.


## V 0.1.16
*23 Jul 2019*
- V can now be used with Visual Studio!
- Hot code reloading now works with graphical applications (e.g. graph.v, bounce.v).
- Compile time memory management for arrays.
- High order functions.
- `match` expression (replacing `switch`).
- Import cycle detection.
- `crypto/md5`, `crypto/sha256`, and `crypro/sha512` modules.
- `os.executable()` - a cross platform function that returns full path to current executable.
- `~/.vlang` and `VROOT` were removed entirely. The installation is a lot cleaner now.
- V can now be packaged for all Linux distros.
- Arch Linux package.
- `string(bytes_buffer, len)`, `string(bytes_array)` casts.
- Multiple `defer`s.
- `key in map` syntax (replacing `map.exists(key)`).


## V 0.1.15
*15 Jul 2019*
- FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly support.
- Hot code reloading now works with graphical applications: [bounce.v](https://github.com/vlang/v/blob/master/examples/hot_code_reloading/bounce.v).
- VROOT was removed, the installation process is now much simpler.
- `defer` statement.
- map.v was re-written. It's now much faster.
- `for key, val in map` syntax.
- `flag` module for parsing command line arguments.
- `zip` module.
- `crypto/sha1` module.
- Submodules and module aliases (`import encoding.base64 as b64`).


## V 0.1.14
*12 Jul 2019*
- `gg` module Windows support, V Tetris runs on Windows.
- `glad` and `cJSON` are now compiled only once, this makes compilation of programs using `gg` and `json` a bit faster.
- `v.c` has been cleaned up and minimized (~16k => ~10k lines of code).
- `type` aliases can now have methods.
- Const overflow check during compilation (`byte(1000)` will no longer compile).


## V 0.1.13
*10 Jul 2019*
- New enum syntax (`token == .name`), enum values are no longer global consts.
- Submodules (`import encoding.base64`).
- Hot code reloading.
- Special `err` variable for getting error values.
- Complex numbers.
- `<<` can now append arrays (`numbers << [1, 2, 3]`).
- Lots of Windows fixes (Windows still needs some work).
- Lots of REPL improvements (e.g. `>> 2 + 3` works now, no `println` required).
- The website was made easily translatable, it's now partially available in several languages.


## V 0.1.12
*4 Jul 2019*
- V can finally compile itself on Windows (https://github.com/vlang/v#mingw-w64).
- `os` module now uses optionals in all functions that return `File`. Lots of  bugs with optionals fixed.
- `println` was optimized. It no longer results in allocations. Now it also works correctly with all integer types.
- Lots of `vfmt` fixes, it will be enabled tomorrow.
- New `strings` module.
- Lots of other fixes and improvements, thanks to all the contributors.


## V 0.1.11
*1 Jul 2019*
- Cross compilation for Windows!
- Lots of Windows fixes.
- socket.v.
- maps fixed.


## V 0.1.9 - 0.1.10
*29 Jun 2019*
- Windows support via MinGW-w64. Pre-built Windows binary.
- File structure has been simplified: all vlib modules were moved to the vlib/ directory,
  makefile was moved to the root.
- One single archive with pre-built binaries for all operating systems.
- `mut var := val` was fixed (previously `mut var = val` was allowed as well).


## V 0.1.8
*28 Jun 2019*
- Single file programs without `fn main` now work as expected.
- REPL has been fixed: it now supports imports, consts, function definitions, etc.


## V 0.1.7
*27 Jun 2019*
- All C code in the compiler and vlib has been replaced with V.
- `#` syntax for embedding C code has been removed.
- Exported functions now need to be marked with `pub`, all public vlib functions have been updated.
- CI has been set up (Travis + Azure). On every commit and PR it is made sure that V
  can compile itself, all tests pass, and all examples compile.
- More tests have been uploaded.
- Cleaner bytes to string conversion: `tos2(bytes)` => `string(bytes)`.
- The home page has 3 more examples next to 'hello world' that show the features of the language.
- Lots of bugs and issues fixed.