The V Programming Language
vlang.io | Docs | Changelog | Speed | Contributing & compiler design
Key Features of V
- Simplicity: the language can be learned in a weekend
- Fast compilation: ≈110k loc/s with a Clang backend, ≈500k loc/s with native and tcc backends (Intel i5-7500, SSD, no optimization) (demo video)
- Easy to develop: V compiles itself in less than a second
- Performance: as fast as C (V's main backend compiles to human-readable C)
- Safety: no null, no globals, no undefined behavior, immutability by default
- C to V translation (Translating DOOM demo video)
- Hot code reloading
- Innovative memory management (demo video)
- Cross-platform UI library
- Built-in graphics library
- Easy cross-compilation
- Built-in ORM
- Built-in web framework
- Great for writing low-level software (Vinix OS)
Stability guarantee and future changes
Despite being at an early development stage, the V language is relatively stable and has backwards compatibility guarantee, meaning that the code you write today is guaranteed to work a month, a year, or five years from now.
There still may be minor syntax changes before the 1.0 release, but they will be handled
vfmt, as has been done in the past.
The V core APIs (primarily the
os module) will still have minor changes until
they are stabilized in V 1.0. Of course the APIs will grow after that, but without breaking
Unlike many other languages, V is not going to be always changing, with new features being introduced and old features modified. It is always going to be a small and simple language, very similar to the way it is right now.
Installing V from source
--> (this is the preferred method)
Linux, macOS, Windows, *BSD, Solaris, WSL, etc.
Usually installing V is quite simple if you have an environment that already has a
To get started, simply try to execute the following in your terminal/shell:
git clone https://github.com/vlang/v cd v make # HINT: Using Windows? run make.bat in a cmd shell, or ./make.bat in PowerShell
That should be it and you should find your V executable at
[path to V repo]/v.
[path to V repo] can be anywhere.
(As in the hint above, on Windows
make means running
Now you can try
./v run examples/hello_world.v (or
v run examples/hello_world.v in cmd shell).
- Trouble? Please see the note above and link to Installation Issues for help.
V is constantly being updated. To update V, simply run:
- ( NOTE: If you run into any trouble, or you have a different operating system or Linux distribution that doesn't install or work immediately, please see Installation Issues and search for your OS and problem. If you can't find your problem, please add it to an existing discussion if one exists for your OS, or create a new one if a main discussion doesn't yet exist for your OS.)
The Tiny C Compiler (tcc) is downloaded for you by
there is a compatible version for your system, and installed under the V
This compiler is very fast, but does almost no optimizations. It is best for development builds.
For production builds (using the
-prod option to V), it's recommended to use clang, gcc, or
Microsoft Visual C++. If you are doing development, you most likely already have one of those
Otherwise, follow these instructions:
NB: it is highly recommended, that you put V on your PATH. That saves
you the effort to type in the full path to your v executable every time.
V provides a convenience
v symlink command to do that more easily.
On Unix systems, it creates a
/usr/local/bin/v symlink to your
executable. To do that, run:
sudo ./v symlink
On Windows, start a new shell with administrative privileges, for example by pressing the
Windows Key, then type
cmd.exe, right-click on its menu entry, and choose
Run as administrator. In the new administrative shell, cd to the path where you have compiled V, then
./v symlink in PowerShell)
That will make V available everywhere, by adding it to your PATH. Please restart your shell/editor after that, so that it can pick up the new PATH variable.
NB: there is no need to run
v symlink more than once - v will still be available, even after
v up, restarts, and so on. You only need to run it again if you decide to move the V repo
folder somewhere else.
Expand Void Linux instructions
# xbps-install -Su base-devel # xbps-install libatomic-devel $ git clone https://github.com/vlang/v $ cd v $ make
Expand Docker instructions
git clone https://github.com/vlang/v cd v docker build -t vlang . docker run --rm -it vlang:latest
Docker with Alpine/musl
git clone https://github.com/vlang/v cd v docker build -t vlang --file=Dockerfile.alpine . docker run --rm -it vlang:latest
On Termux, V needs some packages preinstalled - a working C compiler, also
libgc-static. After installing them, you can use the same script, like on
pkg install clang libexecinfo libgc libgc-static git clone https://github.com/vlang/v cd v make
Testing and running the examples
Make sure V can compile itself:
$ v self $ v V 0.3.x Use Ctrl-C or `exit` to exit >>> println('hello world') hello world >>>
cd examples v hello_world.v && ./hello_world # or simply v run hello_world.v # this builds the program and runs it right away v run word_counter/word_counter.v word_counter/cinderella.txt v run news_fetcher.v v run tetris/tetris.v
NB: In order to build Tetris or 2048 (or anything else using
gg graphics modules),
you will need additional development libraries for your system.
For some Linux distros (Debian/Ubuntu based), you need to run this:
sudo apt install libxi-dev libxcursor-dev.
For Fedora/RH/CentOS, you need to run this:
sudo dnf install libXcursor-devel libXi-devel libX11-devel libglvnd-devel .
For NixOS, add these packages to your
xorg.libX11.dev xorg.libXcursor.dev xorg.libXi.dev libGL.dev
V net.http, net.websocket,
The net.http module, the net.websocket module, and the
v install command may all use SSL.
V comes with a version of mbedtls, which should work on all systems. If you find a need to
use OpenSSL instead, you will need to make sure that it is installed on your system, then
-d use_openssl switch when you compile.
To install OpenSSL on non-Windows systems:
macOS: brew install openssl Debian/Ubuntu: sudo apt install libssl-dev Arch/Manjaro: openssl is installed by default Fedora: sudo dnf install openssl-devel
On Windows, OpenSSL is simply hard to get working correctly. The instructions here may (or may not) help.
sync module and channel implementation uses libatomic.
It is most likely already installed on your system, but if not,
you can install it, by doing the following:
MacOS: already installed Debian/Ubuntu: sudo apt install libatomic1 Fedora/CentOS/RH: sudo dnf install libatomic-static
Android graphical apps
vab tool, building V UI and graphical apps for Android can become as easy as:
Developing web applications
Check out the Building a simple web blog tutorial and Gitly, a light and fast alternative to GitHub/GitLab:
Vinix, an OS/kernel written in V
V is great for writing low-level software like drivers and kernels. Vinix is an OS/kernel that already runs bash, GCC, V, and nano.
V thanks Fabrice Bellard for his original work on the TCC - Tiny C Compiler. Note the TCC website is old; the current TCC repository can be found here. V utilizes pre-built TCC binaries located at https://github.com/vlang/tccbin/.
Please see the Troubleshooting section on our wiki page